Mc Ig Let S Go
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Mc Ig Let S Go
California voters have agreed to significantly raise the tax on cigarettes and vaping devices, but similar measures fell short in Colorado, North Dakota and Missouri.California's Proposition 56 will...
This appears not to be a nerdy niche topic anymore. I received many questions on my current research project, so I thought I would just summarize the talk I prepared for the Human-Centered Machine Learning Meetup yesterday.
Obviously, no. You can have the perfect algorithm and still 0% user adoption. Users' trust is the single factor that determines if AI-based products will gain traction. The questions we should ask are: How can we build trust in AI? What is the root of distrust?
If you look into Human-Computer-Interaction research, you find out that there are a lot of factors influencing users' trust in algorithms. I summarized them in the following graphic and mapped them to "trustor" (AI algorithm), trustee (human user) and situational factors.
This phenomenon is called algorithm aversion. A couple of days ago, Logg, Minson & Moore (2018) found contradicting empirical evidence (algorithm appreciation). They ran multiple experiments which showed that the participants actually put more trust in the algorithmic advice than in their human colleagues. Some examples:
Enunciative-Discursive Neurolinguistics aims to investigate the relationship between language and brain considering the sociohistorical and cultural context in which the subject is immersed. In this perspective, speech and language therapy for aphasias proposes situations where aphasic patients can experience the reversibility of the discursive role inherent to the social use of language. The aim of this paper is to present linguistic strategies used by an aphasic subject (case study) during the therapeutic process in a Speech and Language Clinic of a private Brazilian university, illustrating practical examples of the Enunciative-Discursive Neurolinguistics assumptions. Therapy sessions were recorded and analyzed under an enunciative-discursive aspect and underpinned by the Literacy theory. Thus, clinical episodes were based on interactive situations related to the subject's historical context. Analysis showed that, during the dialogical interaction, the subject used not only the verbal modality to achieve an effective communication, but he also used gestures and other semiotic resources. In addition, it was observed that not only the subject's position in the interaction was important to the construction of his enunciation, but also the listener/therapist's stance (attention and responsive attitude) interferes collaboratively on subject/patient's enunciation chain. The conclusion is that the use of intersubjective activities as well as the consideration of verbal and nonverbal strategies during the interaction may expand aphasic patients' discursive linguistics possibilities since they are placed, in the interaction, as a discourse subject, therefore, able to act upon language.
Research expansion in Aphasiology contributes to the development of different approaches in treating aphasic subjects11. Santana AP. Grupo terapêutico no contexto das afasias. Dist Comun. 2015; 27(1):4-15.),(22. Goff R, Hinckley J, Douglas N. Systematic evaluation of the evidence on aphasia group treatments. Clin Aphasiol Conf. 2012;42:20-5.. That is because the diversity of theoretical perspectives resulting from linguistics and cognition studies imply different clinical approaches33. Campos RV, Gimeno AM. Intervención multidisciplinar en afasias. l Primer Congreso Nacional de Linguística Clínica; 2006, Nov. 6-8; Valencia, ES. Valencia: Universitat, 2011.. Among the best-used approaches, roughly we have a more cognitive and a more social branch. Such perspectives do not exclude each other; however, they start from investigative focuses which underlie different views on language, subject and aphasia.
The behavior of the cognitive branch in the therapeutic process aims to help patients use their remaining skills in order to understand and express themselves in the best possible way in spoken as well as in written language44. Pagliarin KC, Ortiz KZ, Parente MA, Arteche A, Joanette Y, Nespoulous JL et al. Montreal-Toulouse language assessment battery for aphasia: validity and reliability evidence. NeuroRehabilitation. 2014;34(3):463-71.. Cognitive branches, such as connectionism, have been interested in aphasia studies from the perspective of paralleling processing. Assumptions on language processing have been changing since new studies of neuroimaging have demonstrated that there is not straight relationship between brain injury and aphasia linguistic symptom, that is, the same linguistic symptom may be present in patients presenting different injury loci. Thus, difficulties in lexical search and access may be related to more anterior, more posterior injuries, and even in cortical zones including thalamus. This points to the assumption that aphasia manifestations are not limited to the external language expression, but to joint mental operations carried out by a wide neuronal network55. Martory MD, Pertusio FB, Boukrid A. Lesions cerebrales focales et aphasie: presentations cliniques et evaluations. Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 2013;164(8):286-91..
Apart from cognitive explanations, therapeutic practices focusing on the language social practice are mainly concerned with the recovery of conversational skills, possibly lost in aphasias66. Beeke S, Beckley F, Johnson F, Heilemann C, Edwards S, Maxim J et al. Conversation focused aphasia therapy: investigating the adoption of strategies by people with agrammatism. Aphasiology. 2015;29(3):355-77.. Such studies consider that the verbal interaction plays leading role in building social identities and personal interrelationships, besides involving speakers' huge linguistic skill. Thus, in these studies, there is a detailed analysis on how language is structured in order to favor conversation: discursive item, turn taking, among other issues77. Simmons-Mackie N, Savage MC, Worrall L. Review Conversation therapy for aphasia: a qualitative review of the literature. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2014; 49(5):511-26.. In Brazil, one of the outstanding branches in this area has been the enunciative-discursive Neurolinguistics, which considers language a constitutive activity of the subject and the world88. Pacheco MC, Novaes-Pinto RC. Aspectos discursivos da narrativa de um sujeito afásico fluente. Rev Est Ling. 2010;39(2):568-77., according to a vygotskian conception. In this perspective, the therapeutic follow-up views oral communication and writing as social practices, an ongoing process which introduces each subject in the social plotting of his/her community99. Panhoca I, Novaes-Pinto RC, Camargo EAA, Toneli PM. Dialogismo e afasia: estratégias discursivas de um sujeito em interação dialógica. Rev Virtual de Letras. 2014;6(1):84-102.. Therefore, such follow-up breaks the stigmas related to a view which disregards the subject, his/her linguistic actions and social practices11. Santana AP. Grupo terapêutico no contexto das afasias. Dist Comun. 2015; 27(1):4-15.),(88. Pacheco MC, Novaes-Pinto RC. Aspectos discursivos da narrativa de um sujeito afásico fluente. Rev Est Ling. 2010;39(2):568-77.),(1010. Coudry MIH. Linguagem e afasia: uma abordagem discursiva da neurolinguística. Cad Est Linguíst. 2002;42: 99-129.) .
At the end of the 1980s, the first studies related to the discursive processes in aphasia cases began in Brazil1010. Coudry MIH. Linguagem e afasia: uma abordagem discursiva da neurolinguística. Cad Est Linguíst. 2002;42: 99-129.. Such studies are concerned with the subjects and their discursive strategies facing aphasia, not with the investigation of aphasia itself. In this field of study, Coudry's pioneering work1010. Coudry MIH. Linguagem e afasia: uma abordagem discursiva da neurolinguística. Cad Est Linguíst. 2002;42: 99-129. stands out, criticizing the practice of psychometric assessments in the language under the domain of normative writing tradition, thus apart from the intersubjective, social exercise of the language.
Unlike that, by viewing language as subjects' constituting job in the speech language therapeutic clinic, it tries to (re)insert the currently aphasic subject into his meaningful routines to him, close to the former daily routine prior to the brain lesion. In this perspective, the therapist must be a privileged speaker who knows aphasic patients' linguistic processes, able to propose therapeutic strategies to (re) insert the patient into the language11. Santana AP. Grupo terapêutico no contexto das afasias. Dist Comun. 2015; 27(1):4-15.. This re(insertion) is carried out by means of proposed practices of oral communication, reading and writing related to the subject's social practices.
To the Enunciatve-Discursive Neurolinguistics, speech is multimodal, in such a way that non-verbal contributions providing linguistic interaction are also considered in the therapeutic process. Such contributions expand aphasic subjects' meaning possibilities and facilitate patients' (re)insertion into the managing, ideological speech position. Thus, oral communication and writing are viewed as interdependent social practices, gestures (facial and body gestures, pantomime and symbols) as components from the same speech matrix1111. Santana AP, Novaes-Pinto RC, Oliveira MV. Plano Terapêutico Fonoaudiológico para Terapia em Grupo com Afásicos. In Pro-fono (org). Plano Terapêutico Fonoaudiológico. v. 2; Barueri: Pró-fono; 2015. p.155-66., and drawing assumes a symbolic function, representative from verbal, social and ideological content66. Beeke S, Beckley F, Johnson F, Heilemann C, Edwards S, Maxim J et al. Conversation focused aphasia therapy: investigating the adoption of strategies by people with agrammatism. Aphasiology. 2015;29(3):355-77.. 041b061a72